Sunday, February 21, 2010

US Open (tennis)


US Open (tennis)

US Open
US Open.jpg
Official web
LocationQueens - New York City
United States United States
VenueUSTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center
SurfaceGrass - outdoors
Clay - outdoors
DecoTurf - outdoors
Men's draw128S / 128Q / 64D
Women's draw128S / 96Q / 64D
Prize moneyUS$ 21,600,000
Grand Slam

The US Open, formally the United States Open tennis championships, is a tennis tournament which is the modern incarnation of one of the oldest tennis championships in the world, with the U.S. National Championship, which for mens' singles was first contested in 1881. Since 1987, the US Open has been chronologically the fourth and final Grand Slam tennis tournament each year.
It is held annually in August and September over a two-week period (the weeks before and after Labor Dayweekend). The main tournament consists of five different event championships: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles, with additional tournaments for senior, junior, and wheelchair players. Since 1978, the tournament has been played on acrylichard courts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park in Queens,New York City.
The US Open is unique in that there are final-set tiebreaks; in the other three Grand Slam tournaments, the deciding set (fifth for men, third for women) continues until it is won by two games.


The US Open has grown from an exclusive entertainment event for high society to a championship for more than 600 male and female professional players who, as of 2008, compete for total prize money of over US$19 million, with $1.5 million for each winner of the singles tournaments.
In the first few years of the United States National Championship, only men competed, and only in singles competition. The tournament was first held in August 1881 at the Newport Casino, Newport, Rhode Island and in that first year only clubs that were members of the United States National Lawn Tennis Association were permitted to enter. From 1884 through 1911, the tournament used a challenge system whereby the defending champion automatically qualified for the next year's final. In 1915, the tournament moved to the West Side Tennis Club at Forest Hills, New York. From 1921 through 1923, it was played at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia and returned to Forest Hills in 1924.
Six years after the men's nationals were first held, the first official U.S. Women's National Singles Championship was held at the Philadelphia Cricket Club in 1887, followed by the U.S. Women's National Doubles Championship in 1889. The first U.S. Mixed Doubles Championship was held alongside the women's singles and doubles. The first U.S. National Men's Doubles Championship was held in 1900. Tournaments were held in the east and the west of the country to determine the best two teams, which competed in a play-off to see who would play the defending champions in the challenge round.
The open era began in 1968 when all five events were merged into the US Open, held at the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills, New York. The 1968 combined tournament was open to professionals for the first time. That year, 96 men and 63 women entered the event, and prize money totaled $100,000 ($612,476 in current dollar terms).
In 1970, the US Open became the first of the Grand Slam tournaments to use a tiebreak at the end of a set. The US Open is also the only Grand Slam that continues to use the tiebreak in the 5th set. All the other three grand slams play it out with service games in the 5th set.
The US Open was originally played on grass until Forest Hills switched to Har-Tru clay courts in 1975 for three years. In 1978, the event moved north from Forest Hills to its current home at nearby Flushing Meadows and the surface changed again, to the current DecoTurf.
Jimmy Connors is the only individual to have won US Open singles titles on all three surfaces, whileChris Evert is the only woman to win on two surfaces.

Player challenges of line calls

In 2006, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to implement instant replay reviews of calls, using the Hawk-Eye computer system. Each player was allowed three challenges per set plus one additional challenge during a tiebreak. The player keeps all 3 challenges if the challenge is successful. If the challenge is unsuccessful and the original ruling is upheld, the player loses a challenge. Instant replay was initially available only on the stadium courts (Ashe and Armstrong), until became available on the Grandstand in 2009.
Once a challenge is made, the official review (a 3-D computer simulation based on multiple high-speed video cameras) is shown to the players, umpires, and audience on the stadium video boards and to the television audience at the same time. The system is said to be accurate to within five millimetres, resulting in an accuracy of 99.2%.
During the 2006 US Open, 30.5% of men's challenges and 35.85% of women's challenges were overturned.[1] During the 2007 US Open, 95 challenges were overturned - or 30.6%.[citation needed]


The Arthur Ashe stadium
The DecoTurf surface at the US Open is a fast surface, having slightly less friction and producing a lower bounce compared to otherhard courts (most notably the Rebound Acesurface formerly used at the Australian Open). For this reason, many serve-and-volley players have found success at the US Open.
The main court is located at the 24,000-seatArthur Ashe Stadium, opened in 1997. It is named after Arthur Ashe, the African Americantennis player who won the men's final of the inaugural US Open in 1968. The next largest court is Louis Armstrong Stadium, opened in 1978, extensively renovated from the original Singer Bowl. It was the main stadium from 1978-96, and its peak capacity neared 18,000 seats, but was reduced to 10,000 after the opening of Arthur Ashe Stadium. The third largest court is the Grandstand Stadium, attached to the Louis Armstrong Stadium. Sidecourts 4, 7, and 11 each have a seating capacity of over 1,000.
All the courts used by the US Open are lit, meaning that television coverage of the tournament can extend into prime time to attract higher ratings. This has recently been used to the advantage of the USA Network on cable and especially for CBS, the American broadcast television outlet for the tournament for many years, which used its influence to move the women's singles final to Saturday night to draw better television ratings.[citation needed]
In 2005, all US Open (and US Open Series) tennis courts were given blue inner courts to make it easier to see the ball on television; the outer courts remained green.
The USTA National Tennis Center was renamed in honor of four-time tournament champion and tennis pioneer Billie Jean King during the 2006 US Open.

Prize money

The total prize money for the 2008 US Open (in US dollars) is divided as follows:

Singles (men & women - 128 player draws)

Winners (2009)[2]$1,600,000 EACH
Runners-up (2009)[2]$800,000
Semifinalists (2009)[2]$350,000
Quarterfinalists (2009)[2]$175,000
Round of 16$80,000
Third Round$48,000
Second Round$31,000
First Round$19,000

[edit]Doubles (Per Team, Men & Women - 64 Draws)

Round of 16$25,000
Second Round$15,000
First Round$10,000
Total$1,800,000 ($3,600,000)

Mixed Doubles (Per Team - 32 Draws)

Second Round$10,000
First Round$5,000

Men's and Women's Qualifying (128 Draws)

Third Round Losers (16)$8,000
Second Round Losers (32)$5,625
First Round Losers (64)$3,000
Total$500,000 ($1,000,000


Total Championship Events$19,200,000
Total for Champions Invitational$385,000
Player per diem$1,072,000
Total Player Compensation$20,657,00


Past champions

Current champions

2009 Men's SinglesArgentina Juan Martin Del PotroSwitzerland Roger Federer3–6, 7–6 (5), 4–6, 7–6 (4), 6–2
2009 Women's SinglesBelgium Kim ClijstersDenmark Caroline Wozniacki7–5, 6–3
2009 Men's DoublesCzech Republic Lukáš Dlouhý
India Leander Paes
India Mahesh Bhupathi
The Bahamas Mark Knowles
3–6, 6–3, 6–2
2009 Women's DoublesUnited States Serena Williams
United States Venus Williams
Zimbabwe Cara Black
United States Liezel Huber
6–2, 6–2
2009 Mixed DoublesUnited States Carly Gullickson
United States Travis Parrott
Zimbabwe Cara Black
India Leander Paes
6–2, 6–4


Men since 1881
Winner of most
Men's Singles titles
Before 1968:United States Richard Sears
United States Bill Larned
United States Bill Tilden
71881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
1901, 1902, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911
1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1929
After 1967:United States Jimmy Connors
United States Pete Sampras
Switzerland Roger Federer
51974, 1976, 1978, 1982, 1983
1990, 1993, 1995, 1996, 2002
2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
Winner of most consecutive
Men's Singles titles
Before 1968:United States Richard Sears71881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
After 1967:Switzerland Roger Federer52004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
Winner of most
Men's Doubles titles
Before 1968:United States Richard Sears
United States James Dwight
61882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
After 1967:United States Bob Lutz
United States Stan Smith
United States John McEnroe
41968, 1974, 1978, 1980
1968, 1974, 1978, 1980
1979, 1981, 1983, 1989
Winner of most consecutive
Men's Doubles titles
Before 1968:United States Richard Sears
United States James Dwight
61882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
After 1967:Australia Todd Woodbridge
Australia Mark Woodforde
21995, 1996
1995, 1996
Winner of most
Mixed Doubles titles - Men
Before 1968:United States Bill Tilden
United States Bill Talbert
41913, 1914, 1922, 1923
1943, 1944, 1945, 1946
After 1967:Australia Todd Woodbridge
United States Bob Bryan
31990, 1993, 2001
2003, 2004, 2006
Winner of most Championships
(total: singles, men's doubles,
mixed doubles) - Men
Before 1968:United States Bill Tilden161913–1929 (7 singles, 5 men's doubles, 4 mixed doubles)
After 1967:United States John McEnroe81979–1989 (4 singles, 4 men's doubles)
Women since 1887
Winner of most
Women's Singles titles
Before 1968:Norway/United States Molla Bjurstedt Mallory81915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1926
After 1967:United States Chris Evert61975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1982
Winner of most consecutive
Women's Singles titles
Before 1968:Norway/United States Molla Bjurstedt Mallory
United States Helen Jacobs
41915, 1916, 1917, 1918
1932, 1933, 1934, 1935
After 1967:United States Chris Evert41975, 1976, 1977, 1978
Winner of most
Women's Doubles titles
Before 1968:United States Margaret Osborne duPont131941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1955, 1956, 1957
After 1967:Czechoslovakia/United States Martina Navrátilová91977, 1978, 1980, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990
Winner of most consecutive
Women's Doubles titles
Before 1968:United States Margaret Osborne duPont101941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950
After 1967:Spain Virginia Ruano Pascual
Argentina Paola Suárez
32002, 2003, 2004
2002, 2003, 2004
Winner of most
Mixed Doubles titles - Women
All-time:United States Margaret Osborne duPont
Australia Margaret Court
81943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1950, 1958, 1959, 1960
1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1969, 1970, 1972
Before 1968:United States Margaret Osborne duPont81943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1950, 1958, 1959, 1960
After 1967:Australia Margaret Court
United States Billie Jean King
Czechoslovakia/United States Martina Navrátilová
31969, 1970, 1972
1971, 1973, 1976
1985, 1987, 2006
Winner of most Championships
(total: singles, women's doubles,
mixed doubles) - women
All-time:United States Margaret Osborne duPont
Australia Margaret Court
1941–1960 (3 singles, 13 women's doubles, 9 mixed doubles)
1961-1975 (5 singles, 5 women's doubles, 8 mixed doubles)
Before 1968:United States Margaret Osborne duPont251941–1960 (3 singles, 13 women's doubles, 9 mixed doubles)
After 1967:Czechoslovakia/United States Martina Navrátilová161977–2006 (4 singles, 9 women's doubles, 3 mixed doubles)
Youngest winner(single)Men:United States Pete Sampras19 years and 1 month
Women:United States Tracy Austin16 years and 8 months

Men's single

1926France Rene LacosteFrance Jean Borotra
1933United Kingdom Fred PerryAustralia Jack Crawford
1956Australia Ken RosewallAustralia Lew Hoad
1957Australia Mal AndersonAustralia Ashley Cooper
1958Australia Ashley CooperAustralia Mal Anderson
1959Australia Neale FraserPeru Alex Olmedo
1960Australia Neale FraserAustralia Rod Laver
1961Australia Roy EmersonAustralia Rod Laver
1962Australia Rod LaverAustralia Roy Emerson
1963Mexico Rafael OsunaAustralia Frank Froehling
1964Australia Roy EmersonAustralia Fred Stolle
1965Spain Manuel SantanaSouth Africa Cliff Drysdale
1966Australia Fred StolleAustralia John Newcombe
1969Australia Rod LaverAustralia Tony Roche
1970Australia Ken RosewallAustralia Tony Roche
1973Australia John NewcombeCzech Republic Jan Kodes
1977Argentina Guillermo VilasUnited States Jimmy Connors
1986Czech Republic Ivan LendlCzech Republic Miloslav Mecir
1987Czech Republic Ivan LendlSweden Mats Wilander
1988Sweden Mats WilanderCzech Republic Ivan Lendl
1989Germany Boris BeckerCzech Republic Ivan Lendl
1990United States Pete SamprasUnited States Andre Agassi
1991Sweden Stefan EdbergUnited States Jim Courier
1992Sweden Stefan EdbergUnited States Pete Sampras
1993United States Pete SamprasFrance Cedric Pioline
1994United States Andre AgassiGermany Michael Stich
1995United States Pete SamprasUnited States Andre Agassi
1996United States Pete SamprasUnited States Michael Chang
1997Australia Patrick RafterUnited Kingdom Greg Rusedski
1998Australia Patrick RafterAustralia Mark Philippoussis
1999United States Andre AgassiUnited States Todd Martin
2000Russia Marat SafinUnited States Pete Sampras
2001Australia Lleyton HewittUnited States Pete Sampras
2002United States Pete SamprasUnited States Andre Agassi
2003United States Andy RoddickSpain Juan Carlos Ferrero
2004Switzerland Roger FedererAustralia Lleyton Hewitt
2005Switzerland Roger FedererUnited States Andre Agassi
2006Switzerland Roger FedererUnited States Andy Roddick
2007Switzerland Roger FedererSerbia Novak Djokovic
2008Switzerland Roger FedererUnited Kingdom Andy Murray
2009Argentina Juan Martin del PotroSwitzerland Roger Federer

Women's singles

1937Chile Anita LizanaPoland Jadwiga Jedrzejowska
1959Brazil Maria BuenoUnited Kingdom Christine Truman Janes
1963Brazil Maria BuenoAustralia Margaret Court
1973Australia Margaret CourtAustralia Evonne Goolagong Cawley
1985Czech Republic Hana MandlikovaUnited States Martina Navratilova
1988Germany Steffi GrafArgentina Gabriela Sabatini
1990Argentina Gabriela SabatiniGermany Steffi Graf
1991Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Monica SelesUnited States Martina Navratilova
1992Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Monica SelesSpain Arantxa Sanchez Vicario
1993Germany Steffi GrafCzech Republic Helena Sukova
1994Spain Arantxa Sanchez VicarioGermany Steffi Graf
1995Germany Steffi GrafUnited States Monica Seles
1996Germany Steffi GrafUnited States Monica Seles
1997Switzerland Martina HingisUnited States Venus Williams
1998United States Lindsay DavenportSwitzerland Martina Hingis
1999United States Serena WilliamsSwitzerland Martina Hingis
2000United States Venus WilliamsUnited States Lindsay Davenport
2001United States Venus WilliamsUnited States Serena Williams
2002United States Serena WilliamsUnited States Venus Williams
2003Belgium Justine HeninBelgium Kim Clijsters
2004Russia Svetlana KuznetsovaRussia Elena Dementieva
2005Belgium Kim ClijstersFrance Mary Pierce
2006Russia Maria SharapovaBelgium Justine Henin
2007Belgium Justine HeninRussia Svetlana Kuznetsova
2008United States Serena WilliamsSerbia Jelena Jankovic
2009Belgium Kim ClijstersDenmark Caroline Wozniacki


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